National Parks In India | Rashtriy Udhyan PDF Gujarati

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National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. India’s first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park , now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand. By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger in 1973 to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species.

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National parks in India Overview

Further federal legislation strengthening protection for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s.There are 106 existing national parks in India covering an area of 43,716 km2, which is 1.33% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, Dec. 2020). In addition to the above, 75 other National Parks covering an area of 16,608 km2 are proposed in the Protected Area Network Report (Rodgers & Panwar, 1988).  The network of parks will go up 176 after full implementation of the above report.

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National Parks of India is an integral part of Indian geography and Environment. This topic is very relevant from the point of view of competitive examination. National park is a natural park for conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. India has a total of 104 national parks. We have come up with an article that will provide full insights of national park in India, along with Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves, and Community Reserve.

National parks in India

According to the Indian Ministry of Environment & Forests, a national park is “[a]n area, whether within a sanctuary or not, [that] can be notified by the state government to be constituted as a National Park, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, or zoological association or importance, needed to for the purpose of protecting & propagating or developing wildlife there in or its environment. No human activity is permitted inside the national park except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state under the conditions given in CHAPTER IV, WPA 1972”.

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National Parks In India

National parks in India

Protected Areas of India

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations that receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. They are defined according to the guidelines prescribed by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). There are mainly four types of protected areas which are:

  1. National Park
  2. Wildlife Sanctuaries
  3. Conservation reserves
  4. Community reserves

1. National Parks and recent updates

  • There are a total of 106 national parks in India that covers an area of about 1.33% of the geographical area of India.
  • First National Park in India: Jim Corbett National Park (previously known as Hailey National Park), which was established in 1936.
  • By 1970, India only had five national parks.
  • In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger in 1973 to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species.
  • Hemis National Park is commonly known as the largest National Park in India which is located in J&K state.
  • No human activity/ rights is allowed except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state in the national park.
  • Kaziranga in Assam has become 1st national park in India to have been equipped with satellite phones.
  • Raimona Reserve Forest declared as Sixth National Park of Assam.

2. Wildlife Sanctuaries

  • There are 566 existing wildlife sanctuaries in India, covering an area of 122420 km2, which is 3.72% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, Dec. 2020).

3. Conservation reserves

  • These categories added in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002.
  • Buffer zones between established national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and reserved and protected forests of India.
  • Uninhabited and completely owned by the Government.
  • It covered 0.08% geographical area of India.

4. Community reserves

  • These categories added in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002.
  • Buffer zones between established national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and reserved and protected forests of India.
  • Used for subsistence by communities and community areas because part of the land is privately owned.
  • It covered 0.002% geographical area of India.

Acts related to wildlife

  • Wildlife Protection Act 1972
  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974
  • Forest Conservation Act 1980
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981
  • Environment Protection Act 1986
  • Biological Diversity Act 2002
  • Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Rights) Act 2006

Projects related to wildlife

  • Project Tiger 1973
  • Operation Crocodile 1975
  • Project Rhinoceros 1987
  • Project Elephant 1992
  • Project Snow Leopard 2009

List of National Parks in India (State-wise)

Check the state-wise list of important national Parks of India below.

States National park Remarks
Andhra Pradesh Sri Venkateswara National Park
Arunachal Pradesh Mouling National Park
Namdapha National Park Flying squirrel
Assam Kaziranga National Park One-Horned Rhinoceros, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Feral horse, Golden Langur
Manas National Park Golden Langur, Red Panda, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Nameri National Park
Orang National Park
Raimona Reserve Forest
Dehing Patkai National Park in July 2020 Assam government decided to upgrade the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary into National Park.
Bihar Valmiki National Park
Chhattisgarh Indravati National Park
Kanger Valley National Park
Guru Ghasi Das (Sanjay) National Park
Goa Mollem National Park
Gujarat Gir Forest National Park Asiatic lion
Blackbuck National Park Black Buck
Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch
Haryana Kalesar National Park
Sultanpur National Park
Himachal Pradesh Pin Valley National Park
Great Himalayan National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site
Inderkilla National Park
Khirganga National Park
Simbalbara National Park
Jammu & Kashmir Dachigam National Park Kashmir stag
Hemis National Park Largest National Park in India
Kishtwar National Park
Salim Ali National Park
Jharkhand Betla National Park Forest owlets, Sloth bear, Bison
Karnataka Dandeli National Park
Nagarhole National Park (Rajiv Gandhi National Park)
Bandipur National Park
Bannerghatta National Park Sloth Bear
Kerala Pambadum Shola National Park
Eravikulam National Park Nilgiri Tahr (found in western ghats)
Mathikettan Shola National Park
Silent Valley National Park Lion-tailed macaque (found in western ghats)
Anamudi Shola National Park
Periyar National Park
Madhya Pradesh Bandhavgarh National Park
Pench National Park
Kanha National Park
Panna National Park
Pench National Park
Sanjay National Park
Satpura National Park
Maharastra Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Chandoli National Park
Navegaon National Park
Tadoba National Park
Manipur Keibul Lamjao National Park Sangai or Dancing Deers, Only floating park in the world
Sirohi National Park
Meghalaya Balphakram National Park Red Panda
Nokrek National Park Red Panda, UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve
Mizoram Murlen National Park
Phawngpui Blue National Park
Nagaland Ntangki National Park
Odisha Similipal National Park
Bhitarkanika National Park Mangroves, Saltwater crocodile
Rajasthan Keoladeo National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site
Sariska National Park
Ranthambore National Park
Mukundra Hills (Darrah) National Park
Desert National Park Great Indian bustard
Sikkim Khangchendzonga National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site, Musk Deer
Tamil Nadu Mudumalai National Park
Mukurthi National Park Nilgiri tahr
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) National Park
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
Telangana Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park
Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
Tripura Bison(Rajbari) National Park
Clouded Leopard National Park
Uttarakhand Rajaji National Park
Jim Corbett National Park First National Park of India. (previously known as Hailey National Park)
Gangotri National Park
Valley of Flowers National Park
Nanda Devi National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve, Snow Leopard (Himalayan region)
Uttar Pradesh Dudhwa National Park
West Bengal Sunderbans Wildlife Sanctuary UNESCO World Heritage Site, Royal Bengal Tigers
Jaldapara National Park Indian rhinoceros
Buxa National Park
Neora Valley NationalPark
Gorumara National Park
Andaman and Nicobar Mahatama Gandhi Marine (Wandoor) National Park
Mount Harriett National Park
Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
Saddle Peak National Park
Campbell Bay National Park

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